HOME PAGE


What is IAAS?


Workshop
Papers


YUNIT - RES


IAAS Calendar


Summer school

Authors of 
WEB-design

Pesic Milja
ulis@etf.bg.ac.yu

Elezovic Martin
martine@tehnicom.net

 Horvat Damir
horvat@drenik.net

 



WORLD SOLAR PROGRAMME 1996-2005
For Those Interested in Cooperation

YU National Information & Technology Transfer Network
on RES (YUNIT- RES)

Energy Autonomous and Environmentally Clean Farm (EAECF)



1. Project Title :

NATIONAL INFORMATION & TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER NETWORK ON RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND HFA (YUNIT-RES)

2. Duration : Phase I (1997-99), Phase II (2000-2002) and Phase III (2003-2005)

3. Project Site: Focal Center in Belgrade (University of Belgrade and the Institute of Public Health Care of Belgrade), three centers serving as YU-Regional Centers in Podgorica, Novi Sad and Kragujevac, and six YU-Subregional Centers in Zrenjanin, Subotica, Ni{, Pri{tina, Be~i}i and Kotor, as well as 10 - 25 (Ist - 3rd project phase) local network centers all around country (including industrial, engineering and other enterprises, health, financial, governmental, educational, public etc.).

Focal Center Address. UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE, Renewable Energy Sources Expert VECenter - Division for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources DERES, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Nemanjina 6, P. O. Box 127, 11000 Belgrade,

YU-Regional Centers Addresses.

    • Mediterranean YU-Regional Center: ENECO-CENTER, Montenegrinean Academy of Sciences and Arts, 81000 Podgorica, R. Stijovi}a 5.
    • Mountain YU-Regional Center: UNIVERSITY OF KRAGUJEVAC, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, 34000 Kragujevac, Sestre Janjic 6.
    • Pannonian YU-Regional Center: UNIVERSITY OF NOVI SAD, Institute for Agricultural Engineering, 21000 Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovica 8.
4. Government Implementing Agency :

Yugoslav Commission for UNESCO
Kneza Milo{a 26, 11000 Beograd,
Tel. ++381 11 682-555/738, Fax. 381 11 684-848.

5. Executing Agency : UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE, Renewable Energy Sources VECenter - Division for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources DERES, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute for Agricultural Engineering,

Nemanjina 6, P. O. Box 127, 11000 Belgrade,
Tel. ++381 11 199-621, Fax. ++381 11 193-659, 
e-mail deresmt@eunet.yu

6. Estim. Start. Date : Whole project design and project planning and organization is to be accomplished in 1997. Distinct research and educational activities are in realization.

7. Government Input : Phase I - 370.000 US$

Phase II - 420.000 US$

8. International Financing Organization (requested) : Not yet approached.

9. Financing by Private Funding : Is to be available. Manufacturing firms, private banks and other organizations and institutions have been approached. Financing specifications are to be determined as given under item 6.

10. Mixed Financing (public and private) : The same as given in 9.

Country Background and Project Justification

Yugoslav energy demand is forecast to continue to rise in the coming years, and despite improvements in energy efficiency, (more declarative then in real industrial, commercial or residential application), existing reserves of fossil fuels will come under increasing pressure to meet Yugoslav energy requirements. Most of oil and gas supplies are imported. The exploitation of domestic, low heating value coal is limited because of growing evidence that mostly coal combustion is damaging the environment through "greenhouse" and acid gas emission. The need for new, renewable and clean alternatives is clear.

There are rural areas in Yugoslavia as well as in many regions of the world which need much better living conditions and better basic energy supply coupled with the creation of small-scale industry to provide labour and hinder migration to urban centers. For example, hundreds of villages in the mountain region (Stara Planina, Pe{ter Plato, South Kopaonik, Prokletije) are either to far from the existing electrical grid or too often without electricity supply. Also, there is often very little growth in production levels following electrification in rural areas, because operating costs are not covered by revenue and the capital repayments have to be subsidized, resulting in poor maintenance. Severe weather conditions in some of the remote areas make maintenance of electrical grid and distribution systems unreasonably high. It is therefore of vital interest to develop free - renewable demand-side managed and autonomous primary energy resources.

Solar energy could be the solution. Utilization of energy sources such as the sun, geothermal, water and the wind produces few, if any, harmful gas emissions, and reduces reliance on deficitary forms of energy sources. Renewable energy technologies can contribute to the development of sustainable agricultural production and sustainable food chain as well as to improve living, health and education conditions, especially in remote country sides. However, the effective development and uptake of renewable energy technologies in Yugoslavia remains still slow.

Renewed efforts are necessary to help to generate an increase of public interest to become a part of new environmentally clean and promising alternative energy solutions to our energy needs and to attract small as well as large companies to become involved in this growing industry. By developing sound partnership with the universities and institutes they might contribute in the future significantly to more efficient and cost-effective technology development and the commercialization of RES technologies and equipment in Yugoslavia.

Project Objectives

Short-term

- Development and strengthening of national capability for: the acquisition, processing and dissemination of RES information (includes resources data, knowledge and engineering data, results of testing and product quality, data on system operation, commercialization, data on energy services and rural development,..).

- Development of information system and the network as a mechanism through which any participant may have access to RES and relevant environmental information.

- Formulation of relevant criteria and methodology for the RES for Sustainable Development and HFA study, development and implementation.

- Contribute technical information for discussion of public policy regarding energy R&D, sustainable development via HFA route, broadening and regionalisation of R&D programmes.

- Contribute investigation and development of optimal RES systems for local sustainable development demonstration sites - typical for four remote regions.

Medium-term

- Linking of this system (national - YURES Net) and adequate scientific-research and technology development networks in the world (regional and international level)

- Provision of referral and substantive information from developed data bases; National and international exchange of information; Effective cooperation at the international, regional and national levels based on information.

- Network's R&D objective is to provide data on international developments in the field of RES use for residential, health care, educational, commercial and industrial applications, energy conservation and storage, field and building envelopes integrated PV-s and hybrid systems; decentralized and autonomous RES systems for cogeneration, solar energy use in communities water (including desalination) and electrical distribution systems as well as biomass use in district heating and cooling systems and biomass conversion and use as the transportation fuels.

- Development and transfer of technologies for solar energy utilization (which includes all sources of renewable energy such as solar thermal, photovoltaic, biomass, geothermal, mini hydraulic and wind). There are also prospects for tidal and ocean-sea (thermal) energy use, however not yet more extensively studied in Yugoslavia.

- Contribute strengthening of RES industries (arranging for a pilot and demonstration plants, organizing different partnerships, enterprise meetings etc.).

- Contribute efficient building of optimal RES systems for local sustainable development demonstration sites - typical for four remote regions.

Long-term

- Contribute further knowledge improvement and technologies developments in the field of RES use for residential, medical-health control, educational, commercial and industrial applications.

- Contribute entering international RES - R&D engineering and trade projects and contribute national economy growth harmonized with the HFA and sustainable development value system.

- Contribute wide range implementation of technologies for RES utilization and establishment of the sustainable system of energy production and utilization avoiding environmental pollution and degradation and providing conditions for the sustainable HFA system foundation

Project Description

Using scientific-technical information by the new information technologies, available gained and exchanged knowledge and experience, should become efficient instrumental to the successful performance in R&D, technology transfer and engineering development as well as RES implementation.

There are established national, regional an global networks and data bases. Their functioning should give opportunity to broad users categories to be educated and trained to improve and apply their scientific, technical, and creative abilities in their activities. However current enormous growth of the information technologies power and their world-wide spreading is not yet in adequately effective utilization. Their real role in practical applications including risks of bias use has to be also elucidated. Means and methodologies of information investigation and utilization have to be studied further generally, as well as at the level of distinct problem domain what is the case in this project.

As a result of thus performed study, highly efficient and effective information & technology transfer network on new and renewable energy sources for sustainable development (YUNIT-RES) has to be designed and functionally established. It shall enable necessary communication to initiate collaborative/consortium effort to optimize and leverage resources utilizing range of expertise and assimilating different RES perspectives. Interactive information exchange shall support parallel development of several most promising approaches to RES R&D and commercialization, helping the development costs minimization, providing symbiotic developments, broadening linkage to industry and users and increasing opportunities for spin-offs.

Non-renewable resources have been dangerously over-exploited and renewable energy and natural resources are being consumed on a non-sustainable basis producing enormous quantities of wastes. Awareness on even more drastic consequences has led to the adoption of sustainable development policies that seek to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the earth ecosystem.

In accordance with this the project strategy assumes that sustainable development, health security, environment and social sustainability and RES development and implementation are inextricably linked. The introduction of health aspects and indicators into environmental impact assessment of RES will help to bring RES implementation, health and sustainable food chain as well as sustainable development together. This strategy shall enable to develop very distinct information and technology transfer network. Such network shall farther contribute development of RES utilization and gradually contribute to the establishment of the sustainable system of energy production and utilization avoiding environmental pollution and degradation and providing conditions for the sustainable "Health For All" system foundation. General scheme of the YUNIT-RES organization and its geographical presentation are given in Annex 1

In accordance with the given statements and defined objectives the Project's main tasks are:

- Exploration and evaluation of the national resources of scientific - technical information systems on new and renewable energy sources - RES, and of the current means of their utilization.

- Determination of the possibilities for more efficient and effective RES information investigation and more effective means of reliable information selection and utilization.

- Study of the world-wide available RES information systems and of the effectiveness of networks operational mechanisms.

- Identification of the national renewable energies and clean environment related health and sustainability merits. Determination of the RES and HFA technologies development status - network linking needs and adequate scientific-research and technology development networks in the world

- Exploration of referral and substantive information from developed databases, national and international exchange of information and effective cooperation at the international, regional and national levels based on information.

- Determination of the current role of information on the R&D enhancement and technologies transfer.

- Determination of design parameters of national RES logical and physical information system architecture.

- Determination of the scope, objectives and structure of national/international RES, sustainability and HFA merits relevant databases to be established.

- Design of optimal expert and management systems for the efficient operational RES national and cooperative/international use.

Expected Outputs

- Establishment of the designed logical and physical information and technology transfer system architecture (organization, functions, data categories, network management, necessary resources - HW, SW, NW...)

- Establishment of the YURES Net - designed as a decentralized but central coordinated system whose operation relies on the network of RES institutions and other relevant institutions (information sources). Organizational structure of the network: 
a) National Focal-Centers for: Information and Network Management; R&D and Technology Transfer; (Nationally and internationally recognized Centers of expertise in particular RES (or relevant) subject areas); 
b) YU-Regional Centers for: Pannonian, Mountain and Mediterranean areas; 
c) National sources (National institutions or individuals who have information on specific RES topics)

- Establishment of several data bases (some of them would be centralized on the national focal-point level, and other distributed on the information sources level) such as: 
a) Specific DBs (Dictionaries, Thesaurus, Terminology DB,...) 
b) Referral DBs (Directories of sources, personal, expertise and knowledge; Bibliographic and Documentary DBs on research and application projects and published papers)
c) Factual DBs (DB on Basic measurement and parameter values for evaluation nature energy potentials - solar, wind, biomass, ...; Analytical DB on fundamental and applied research; Full text DB on specific documents and papers)

- Design of particular expert and management systems in operational use of RES and physical networking (local and wide area) and providing real-time information exchange on national and international level

- Methodology of designing and planning of information system /network and databases relevant for the integrated RES - sustainable development - HFA system development.

- Finally using new information technologies gained and exchanged knowledge and experience shall contribute to the success of solar, biomass, geothermal and wind energy and aid in emphasizing them as a clean, viable and sustainable source of renewable energy. Established network and its functioning will give opportunity to broad users categories to be educated and trained to apply their scientific, technical, and creative abilities in RES technologies improvement and spreading of use as well as to start with new career endeavors.

Target Beneficiaries

- The direct target beneficiaries are all YUNIT-RES users in all society groups and state and economy sectors as well as institutions, associations and firms (manufacturing, industrial, educational, agricultural, medical/health, research, financial, governmental, political etc.).

- The indirect beneficiaries are international RES databases and relevant networks as well as their developers.

- Project results shall be as a particular and specific experience utilized in a more general information investigation and utilization studies.

Project Sustainability

With the reference to the described Project strategy, objectives, contents, outputs, and beneficiaries, which are nationally justified, and taking in account that potential risk elements are predicted and elucidated, it is possible to expect reliable development and project successful realization, i.e. the Project sustainability.

Partners

- Institute of Public Health Care of Belgrade, 29 Novembar 54a, Tel ++381 11 3235-000, ++381 11 3227- 628.

- Institutions members of the Renewable Energy Sources Expert VECenter.

Risks

The project formulated to the above objectives and justified as above is intended to unfold. However, predictable risk related problem elements shall be permanently focused and resolved during the project development. Main cause of eventual problems is expected to be related to the: lack of adequate budgetary resources and provisions; restructuring of legal and policy framework necessary for transition to a market economy, and restructuring of economy both at macro level away from production and at enterprise level through increasing emphasis on small and medium sized industries.

Project Financing - Project Budget

Phase I and Phase II - US $ 1 890 000
Budget/costs specification is given in Annex 2.

Incremental Cost to be Covered by a Grant

To be determined in accordance with item 6.

Eligibility of the Project to be under the World Solar Programme 1996-2005

- HPNP

The project is HPNP with the Order of Priority 1

- Global Projects

The willingness of Yugoslavia to cooperate, inter alia through the same project, in the preparation and execution of the Global Renewable Energy Education and Training Programme 1996-2005 and of the International Renewable Energy Information and Communication System (Item 8, the first statement from below page No 2 in the Proceedings of the Consultation Workshop on the preparation of the World Solar Programme 1996-2005, Paris, 20-21 March 1997). - Regional Projects The same willingness as given above has been expressed and now is to be confirmed to cooperate in regional projects of similar content, objectives and goals as discussed with colleagues, during experts meetings in March and June in Paris (Mediterranean, Russia, CIS countries, East Europe, South Africa and other). Completion Dates

- Phase I (1997-99) December 1999.
- Phase II (2000-2002) December 2002.
- Phase III (2003-2005), December 2005.

Contact Person

Prof. Dr Marija Todorovi},

UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE, Division for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Sources DERES, Faculty of Agriculture, Institute for Agricultural Engineering,
Nemanjina 6, P. O. Box 127, 11000 Belgrade, Tel. ++381 11 199-621, Fax. ++381 11 193-659, e-mail deresmt@eunet.yu

/Back/
 


1. Project Title: Energy Autonomous and Environmentally Clean Farm (EAECF)

2. Duration: Two 5 year lasting phases (10 years altogether).

3. Project Site: Main experimental continental location of farm is in the village Kovilj near Novi Sad (Republic Serbia), secondary on hilly land in Sremski Karlovci and third Mediterranean location in village Markovi}i near Budva (Republic Montenegro).

4. Government Implementing Agency: Federal Ministry of Development Science and Environment, Yugoslav Committee for UNESCO.

5. Executing Agency: Faculty of Agriculture Novi Sad.

6. Estimated Starting Data (month, year): November, 1996.

7. Government Inputs:

- For location Kovilj 162 000 US $).

- For location Sremski Karlovci 115 000 US$

- For location Markovi}i 100 000 US $).

Local inputs are existing arable land, buildings, machines and labor which will be participate in project and commune funds of Novi Sad, Sremski Karlovci and Budva.

8. International Financing Organization (requested): 

US $ 263 000 for location Kovilj 

US$ 196 000 for location Sremski Karlovci and

US $ 196 000 for location Markovi}i.

9. Financing by Private Funding (requested): US $ 250 000

10. Mixed Financing (public and private - requested): US $ 250 000

1. Country Background

"EAECF" project is to take place in Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Agriculture of FR Yugoslavia is mainly in hands of small individual farmers. About 1 million individual agricultural households own averagely 4 ha of arable land. This project should point out the possibility of activating the resources of individual agricultural household in the process of food and energy production from renewable energents. Since agriculture is one of the fundamental branches of Yugoslavian economy, this project has support of both federal republic ministries (Yugoslavian, Serbian and Montenegrian).

2. Project objectives (short, medium, long - term):

- The main short-term project objective is to prove that it is possible to increase food production on individual agricultural households by use of renewable energy sources. The use of renewable energy will also make the farm completely energetically autonomous. This will lead to revitalization of distant farms which were abandoned because of high costs needed for their connection to the public electrical network. Faster economical progress of rural areas is also expected as well as the increase of farmers' living standard.

- Medium-term project objective is food production based on the principles of sustainable agriculture together with implementation of ISO 14 000 and IFOAM standard. Such food has much higher price on the world market, which means further increase of farmers' income. This would create all necessary conditions for greater existential safety of farmers and in the end it would stop migrational process village-city. Application of high technologies in food production and production of energy from renewable sources requests co-education (extension) of farmers in the domain of high technologies. This leads to the new civilizational and cultural progress in the rural areas. Increase of live stock, manure production and application of renewable energents will stop degradation of arable land and prevent further air and water contamination. The process of ecological repair of rural areas will begin.

-Long term objective is achieving high living standard in village areas of Yugoslavia, reverse migrational flow city-village, increase of birth rate and establishing healthy environment in the entire agricultural-forest complex. Positive results of project in Yugoslavian conditions can be used as a guidelines for undeveloped countries. It will be proved that industrialization and urbanization are not the only suppositions of society development.

Project description

The lack of oil derivatives in Yugoslavia during the time period 1992-1995 (blockade) seriously jeopardized the whole agricultural production. Intensive agriculture requires direct consumption of 240 l of diesel fuel per year per 1 ha (agrotechnical operations + transport + drying) and significant amount of oil used in indirect consumption (production of artificial fertilizers and pesticides). The rural household itself is also a big consumer of nonrenewable energy and 90% of this is used for heating purposes (buildings and processes) and for hot water production. Existing high mechanized and chemicalized agriculture causes soil degradation, and including industry, urbanization and transportation causes food contamination with over 40000contaminants (only 1/4 of which have partially explored metabolic pathways and dangers for human health). 

Because of all these facts Institute for Agricultural Engineering, Novi Sad, has conducted a study on the exploitation of renewable energy sources in agriculture as well as on the suitable technics and agrotechnologies. Maximum attention is paid on ecological and economical performances of agricultural production. 

A few production models aimed to avoid the use of nonrenewable energies and to have good ecological effects have been made. In the same time these innovative solutions shall have the best economical effects (minimum of inputs and maximum of outputs), have been made. It is concluded that combining plant and stock production and using renewable energy sources (sun, wind, biogas, biooil, surface geothermal energy) on the small farm it is possible to produce per one hectare and per one year 47 500 MJ of energy in food (plant and stock origin), 10 000 kg of biofertilizers and at the same time, by maximal use of renewables, to produce on the basic farm module (buildings, yards, 4 ha of arable land) 200 000 kWh of thermal energy and 30 000 kWh of electrical energy per year. For the real economical justification of these solutions is necessary to define and adopt appropriate criteria for the ecological effects evaluation. Concerning that an average farm in Yugoslavia includes 4 hectares of cultivable soil, with the growth tendency, it is decided that all the aspects of this energetically independent and ecological agricultural production are to be experimentally proved under these conditions.

4. Expected outputs

During realization of project it is expected to have more outputs. Those are:

-Establishing technically and economically acceptable use of renewable energents on the farm and the possibility of creating energetically autonomous farm.

-Establishing optimally acceptable plant and live-stock production according to ISO 14 000 or IFOAM standards.

-Establishing the possible relation of outputs and inputs, productivity and farm incomes.

- Establishing the needed level of farmers' education in the domain of modern technics and high technologies.

5. Target Beneficiaries:

The objective of the project is experimental verification of energetic, agrotechnical, agrotechnological, economical and ecological aspects of combined plant and stock production based on the use of renewable energies, optimal use of electric energy and high technologies (specially electronics, automatics, computers and biotechnology) with maximum possible application of sustainable agriculture and sustainable development approaches. Experimental farm is being built in rural area on a module of 4 hectares in the first phase and will rise up to 8 and 16 hectares during the project realization. In the experiment in plane land of Kovilj will specially participate Agricultural community and 12 existing individual agricultural households. In hilly land of Sremski Karlovci will participate also Agricultural community and 3 individual agricultural households (orchards, vineyards, sheep, goats, poultry and renewable energents). Third experimental mediteran area is in Markovi}i - near Budva with 16 ha of terraced arable land and 1000 ha of unarable land covered by bushes and litle trees (makia). All important factors for these farmers' becoming a part of EAECF system will be established.

The main objective of project is to prove that it is technologically, technically, economically and ecologically justified to start combined organic plant and stock agricultural production based on renewable energents (sun, biogas, biodiesel, wind, surface geothermal energy). We are going to establishthe necessary level of high technologies and politechnical education of farmers needed under these conditions. We will search for the optimal production areas where this technology could give the best effects. We expect that intensive, high-productive, low-cost and ecologically acceptable production will be possible on the small farm as well as on the large one (price decrease of electronics, computers and other high technology equipment at the world market will make it possible).

Globally, target beneficiaries could be divided in 4 main categories (dimensions): energetical, agricultural, ecological and civilizational.

- Through energetical aspect we want to show the technical possibilities and economical justification of energy production from the renewable sources on the farm. On the model it is estimated that the farm could produce 30 000 kWh of electrical energy annually (by use of cogeneration biogas machines, photovoltaic collectors and windgenerators) and 200 000 kWh of heat energy annually (by use of cogeneration biogas machines, heat solar collectors, passive solar architecture, heat pumps and biooils).

- Through agricultural aspect we want to show that on the principle of sustainable agriculture and by application of high technologies, it is possible to produce enough food for 34 inhabitants annually on 4 ha of arable land for the price which is acceptable for the market.

- Through ecological aspect we want to achieve environment preservation in the rural areas and produce healthy food according to ISO 14 000 standard.

- Through civilizational aspect we want to prove that on the small agricultural household it is possible to obtain high incomes in healthy environment with new cultural-civilizational values. Positive results of this experiment could influent the migrational process village-city by stopping it in the world proportion.

6. Project Sustainability

It is expected that during 10 years of realization, this project will draw attention of Yugoslavian and international professional and scientific public. According to our solutions "Energy Autonomous and Environmentally Clean Farms" can be examined and verified on all continents. Energetically Autonomous and Environmentally Clean Farm is by its nature already sustainable project.

7. Partners

On the Faculty of agriculture in Novi Sad a special organizational unit is formed for realization of "Energy Autonomous and Environmentally Clean Farm" project. The main experimental location of the farm will be in village Kovilj 20 km away from Novi Sad. There, with their own productional resources, in the project will participate Agricultural community Kovilj and 12 individual agricultural households, everyone of them with his own scenario of organic food production and production of energy from renewable sources. Second location is on the orchard-vineyard hilly land of Sremski Karlovci (10 km from Novi Sad). Preparations are in progress for opening of the Mediterranean location of farm in village Markovi}i near Budva in Montenegro. There the farm will exist on 16 ha of terraced arable land and 1000 ha of unarable land covered by bushes (this farm will provide citizen of Budva with milk)

During the realization of project Faculty of Agriculture Novi Sad will establish professional and scientific cooperation with Faculty of agriculture in Belgrade and Scientific Institute of field and vegetable crops in Novi Sad. Connections will be established with other scientific institutions as well, both in Yugoslavia and abroad, depending of needs and mutual interests.

We also think that important cooperation will be established with countries and scientific institutions which have submitted High Priority National Projects, i.e. which are running similar projects. Those are particularly Italy, Greece, France, Spain, Russia, China, India, Israel, Jordan, Palestine, Morocco, Libya, Syria, Cyprus, Turkey, Malta, Zimbabwe, Democratic People's Republic of Korea and other

8. Risks

During the realization of the project two kinds of risks might occur: productional and economical risks.

Productional risks are the risks of production. Considering that the production on the farm is very intensive and controlled these risks, in the sense of quality and quantity, are minimal. Since the production on the farm is highly dependent of renewable energents, lack of energy during certain critical phases of production may occur because of the fact of simultaneous consumption and unfavorable constellation of certain energents' contribution. Because of that during the beginning phases of project unrenewable energents and connection to electrical network will be used as reserve-sources of energy. During the later phases of project the critical problems in use of renewable energents will be discerned, so that the special reserves will be created in the system which will grant the full energetical autonomy of the farm.

Economical risks are caused by the price of equipment, productional inputs and agricultural products, as well as by the possibilities of finding market for the goods. Equipment inputs are the most important point of the costs. On the market of these inputs there is a tendency of prices decrease. The costs of raw materials in ecological production are minimal, so that eventual increase of these costs will have no serious influence on the efficiency of the project. So far, domestic prices of ecological products aren't very stimulating. As we're speaking, the government of Yugoslavia hasn't built any kind of economical mechanism for protection of such products, so that the biggest part of ecological food production will be aimed at foreign markets. Market risks will be minimized by the contracted production for the known buyer. Eventual surpluses of renewable energents may be placed on the market and those surpluses will be extra profit of the farm.

9. Project Financing

- Projects and studies US $ 280 000
- Buildings and equipment US $ 1 000 000
- Production costs through 10 years US $ 250 000
____________________________________________________

TOTAL US $ 1 530 000

10. Project Budget

- Yugoslav Government Inputs US $ 375 000
- International Financing Organization
(requested) US $ 655 000
- Donators (public and private) US $ 500 000
_________________________________________________

TOTAL US $ 1 530 000

11. Incremental Cost to be Covered by a grant: US $ 500 000

12. Project "Energy Autonomous and Environmentally Clean Farm" is firstly high priority Yugoslavian project, but because of its multidimensionality and universality of problems which it solves it has all the elements of the global project. Because of similar climatic conditions this project has also regional importance for Balkan and Mediterranean area.

13. Project will last 10 years, but after 5 years the recapitulation of realized researches will be done.

14. The fundamental problem in this phase of project is lack of finances, and finances are necessary so that we could buy hi-tech equipment which will be used by all these households together. Actually, the equipment needed consists of a bio-gas reactor of 100 m3 which costs 100 000 DEM, photovoltaic collectors which cost 50 000 DEM and 2 windmills for watering which cost 30 000 DEM. About 50000 DEM are needed to pay the researchers during this year and about 20 000 DEM for informational and telecommunicational support.

If private international investors decide to support our EAECF project of course that it money return is possible.

Energy production from renewable sources and production of high-quality ecological food (organic) have their market value, so all who receive finances can freely oblige to return the money. However, considering that this is scientific project it will not be possible to return 100% of the given amount (it is estimated that about 50%-60% could be returned). Also, the installments should be paid off during longer period, for example 10 years. We think that under these conditions investors could be found, so we kindly ask for help and intervention of World Solar Commission.

Lastly, we emphasize that within EAECF project we have taken measures to develop new products by employing Yugoslavian factories. We succeeded to connect factories "POBEDA" from Novi Sad, "SEVER" from Subotica, "14. OKTOBAR" from Kru{evac and "KRU[IK" from Valjevo, so that they now work together on the development of small universal electric joint-tractor. The first prototype will be ready in 1999 and we consider it the crucial product for the concept of EAECF. On a small farm (maximally 4 ha), electric tractor will have enough electric energy from renewable sources that to accomplish all agro-technical operations on the field and other mechanical operations on the household (lifting and carrying the weight, digging holes and canals...). We think that these technical solutions of ours will be precious for modernization and effectuating the resources on small agricultural household all around the world.

We also will develop prototyp of windmill for watering, small biogas digestor, electric powered machines in agriculture etc.

14. Contact Person
 

Project coordinator of "Energy Autonomous and Environmentally Clean Farm" is

Prof. dr Petar Kavgi}

Faculty of Agriculture Novi Sad
21000 Novi Sad, Trg D.Obradovi}a 8
YUGOSLAVIA
Tel: +381-21-59958, Fax: +381-21-59989
e-mail: pekav@polj.ns.ac.yu

/Back/